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created the first open-source database documenting mass shootings in the United States.
Our research has focused on indiscriminate rampages in public places resulting in four or more victims killed by the attacker.
We exclude shootings stemming from more conventional crimes such as armed robbery or gang violence.
Other news outlets and researchers have published larger tallies that include a wide range of gun crimes in which four or more people have been either wounded or killed.
Accordingly, we include attacks dating from January 2013 in which three or more victims died.
Our original analysis, which covers cases with four or more victims killed from 1982-2012, follows below.
Since 1982, there have been at least 84 public mass shootings across the country, with the killings unfolding in 34 states from Massachusetts to Hawaii.
Forty-seven of these mass shootings have occurred since 2006.
The interactive map below and our downloadable database have been expanded with 22 additional cases from 2013-2016.
Dating from 2005, the FBI and leading criminologists essentially defined a mass shooting as an attack in a public place in which four or more victims were killed.
While those larger datasets of multiple-victim shootings may be useful for studying the broader problem of gun violence, our investigation provides an in-depth look at the distinct phenomenon of mass shootings—from the firearms used to mental health factors and the growing copycat problem.
Tracking mass shootings is complex; we believe ours is the most useful approach.